Demodecia canina

Demodecia (demodicoza) este o boală de piele parazitară (produsă de Demodex canis), având caracter infecţios, dar fiind foarte puţin contagioasă. Paraziţii se dezvoltă la nivelul rădăcinii firelor de păr (foliculilor piloşi) şi al glandelor sebacee, afectând în principal tineretul canin.

Sursele de contaminare sunt reprezentate de câinii bolnavi, transmiterea bolii făcându-se direct, la nivelul pielii (cutanat), prin contactul căţeilor tineri cu mama, în primele ore de viaţă.

Apariţia bolii este favorizată de numeroşi factori:
rasa: mai frecvent la rasele de câini cu păr scurt (Boxer, Teckel, Dalmaţian, Doberman, Shar-Pei, Dog german); afectează şi unii câini cu păr lung (Yorkshire, Bobtail, Chow-Chow);
sexul: nu influenţează receptivitatea, deşi masculii sunt mai predispuşi la apariţia bolii;
vârsta: are o deosebită importanţă – demodecia evoluează la câinii tineri (3 luni-1 an); rareori se semnalează îmbolnăviri la câinii adulţi şi bătrâni;
starea generală a animalului: carenţele alimentare în vitaminele A, C, K, B6, B12, excesul de glucide şi lipide, stresul măresc receptivitatea animalelor la această boală parazitară;
starea pielii: pielea seboreică, inflamată, bogată în secreţii, dar şi băile frecvente ale patrupedelor cu şampoane puternic iritante favorizează multiplicarea paraziţilor la acest nivel;
deficienţele imunitare: influenţează major receptivitatea căţeilor la demodecie.
Boala este sporadică şi necontagioasă, deşi în canisele aglomerate poate să evolueze simultan la mai multe animale, mai ales la căţeii de la aceeaşi mamă.

Semnele clinice ale demodeciei la câine apar după o perioadă de incubaţie de 6-8 săptămâni, boala evoluând sub două forme:
forma uscată (simplă): zone roşiatice în regiunea capului (în jurul ochilor, la marginea buzelor, pe obraz, la baza şi pe pavilionul urechilor), pe membre, pe gât, torace şi abdomen; scuame fine, alb-gălbui, care se desprind uşor; exces de secreţii uleioase la nivelul pielii, care degajă un miros respingător; zone lipsite de păr, în special în jurul ochilor („ochelari demodecici”), buzelor, dar şi pe cap, torace, membre;
forma umedă (supurativă): pielea este edemaţiată şi dureroasă, degajând un miros respingător de „unt rânced”; apar pustule alb-gălbui sau violacee, ce conţin puroi; animalele se scarpină intens şi determină formarea unor leziuni care sângerează; leziunile se extind pe întreaga suprafaţă a corpului; pielea se îngroaşă, devenind asemănătoare scoarţei de copac; animalele sunt triste, slăbesc progresiv; în cazurile grave, netratate corespunzător, apar complicaţii renale (nefrită, uremie) ce duc la moartea animalelor.

Diagnosticul bolii se stabileşte pe baza corelării datelor prezentate de proprietar (vârsta câinelui, factorii favorizanţi) cu aspectele clinice constatate de medicul veterinar în urma examinării pacientului, şi se confirmă prin realizarea unui preparat din leziunile de la nivelul pielii (raclat cutanat profund) − în care se evidenţiază paraziţii −, ce va fi examinat la microscop.

În urma confirmării demodeciei, medicul curant va institui un tratament specific (antiparazitar), dar şi unul simptomatic şi de susţinere a organismului.

Pentru prevenirea bolii trebuie asigurate patrupedului o dietă corespunzătoare atât din punct de vedere cantitativ, cât şi calitativ, igiena acestuia, dar şi a mediului, administrarea de suplimente vitamino-minerale, evitarea factorilor stresori (care pot duce la scăderea imunităţii) şi a spălării prea dese cu şampoane puternic iritante, utilizarea lunară a produselor antiparazitare spot-on.

Autor articol: Vlad Lungu

About the author: Prima-Vet

Din 2002 oferim servicii medicale-veterinare complete și de calitate, pentru prietenii necuvântători ai omului.

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